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The Eighth is of the Seven – Number One

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Miller’s Two Rome’s

William Miller based his prophetic message upon the framework of two desolating powers, which he correctly identified as pagan Rome and papal Rome.

“William Miller, when applying his hermeneutic, noticed in the various apocalyptic passages a recurring theme of controversy between the people of God and their enemies. In his analysis of the persecuting powers of God’s people throughout the ages he developed the concept of the two abominations, defined as paganism (the first abomination) symbolizing the persecuting force outside the church, and the papacy (the second abomination) representing the persecuting power within the church. It was the motif of the two abominations that characterized most of his following prophetic interpretations.” P. Gerard Damsteegt, Foundations of the Seventh-day Adventist Message and Mission, 22.


The theologians of Adventism acknowledge the fact that Miller’s framework of prophetic application was the two desolating powers of paganism and papalism, even if they only consider it as an analysis of Millerite history, and not as a truth that was given him by God.

“God sent His angel to move upon the heart of a farmer who had not believed the Bible, to lead him to search the prophecies. Angels of God repeatedly visited that chosen one, to guide his mind and open to his understanding prophecies which had ever been dark to God’s people. The commencement of the chain of truth was given to him, and he was led on to search for link after link, until he looked with wonder and admiration upon the Word of God. He saw there a perfect chain of truth. That Word which he had regarded as uninspired now opened before his vision in its beauty and glory. He saw that one portion of Scripture explains another, and when one passage was closed to his understanding, he found in another part of the Word that which explained it. He regarded the sacred Word of God with joy and with the deepest respect and awe.” Early Writings, 230.


“His angel” is identified directly as Gabriel by Sister White.

“The words of the angel, ‘I am Gabriel, that stand in the presence of God,’ show that he holds a position of high honor in the heavenly courts. When he came with a message to Daniel, he said, ‘There is none that holdeth with me in these things, but Michael [Christ] your Prince.’ Daniel 10:21. Of Gabriel the Saviour speaks in the Revelation, saying that ‘He sent and signified it by His angel unto His servant John.’ Revelation 1:1. And to John the angel declared, ‘I am a fellow servant with thee and with thy brethren the prophets.’ Revelation 22:9, R.V. Wonderful thought—that the angel who stands next in honor to the Son of God is the one chosen to open the purposes of God to sinful men.” The Desire of Ages, 99.


“Wonderful thought—that the angel who stands next in honor to the Son of God is the one chosen to open the purposes of God” to William Miller’s mind. Not only Gabriel, but angels in the plural guided his understanding of the prophecies “which had ever been dark to God’s people.” Gabriel and other angels led Miller through the Bible consecutively from Genesis onward. He therefore was led to the longest time prophecy in the Bible, which is the “seven times” (twenty-five hundred and twenty years) of Leviticus twenty-six, well before he was led to the twenty-three hundred days of Daniel chapter eight and verse fourteen.

“I then devoted myself to prayer and to the reading of the word. I determined to lay aside all my prepossessions, to thoroughly compare Scripture with Scripture, and to pursue its study in a regular and methodical manner. I commenced with Genesis, and read verse by verse, proceeding no faster than the meaning of the several passages should be so unfolded, as to leave me free from embarrassment respecting any mysticism or contradictions. Whenever I found anything obscure, my practice was to compare it with all collateral passages; and by the help of CRUDEN, I examined all the texts of Scripture in which were found any of the prominent words contained in any obscure portion. Then by letting every word have its proper bearing on the subject of the text, if my view of it harmonized with every collateral passage in the Bible, it ceased to be a difficulty. In this way I pursued the study of the Bible, in my first perusal of it, for about two years, and was fully satisfied that it is its own interpreter. I found that by a comparison of Scripture with history, all the prophecies, as far as they have been fulfilled, had been fulfilled literally; that all the various figures, metaphors, parables, similitudes, etc. of the Bible, were either explained in their immediate connection, or the terms in which they were expressed were defined in other portions of the word, and when thus explained, are to be literally understood in accordance with such explanation. I was thus satisfied that the Bible is a system of revealed truths, so clearly and simply given, that the “wayfaring man, though a fool, need not err therein.’ …

“From a farther study of the Scriptures, I concluded that the seven times of Gentile supremacy must commence when the Jews ceased to be an independent nation at the captivity of Manasseh, which the best chronologers assigned to B. C. 677; that the 2300 days commenced with the seventy weeks, which the best chronologers dated from B. C. 457; and that the 1335 days commencing with the taking away of the daily, and the setting up of the abomination that maketh desolate, Daniel chapter seven verse eleven, were to be dated from the setting up of the Papal supremacy, after the taking away of Pagan abominations, and which, according to the best historians I could consult, should be dated from about A. D. 508. Reckoning all these prophetic periods from the several dates assigned by the best chronologers for the events from which they should evidently be reckoned, they all would terminate together, about A. D. 1843. I was thus brought, in 1818, at the close of my two years study of the Scriptures, to the solemn conclusion, that in about twenty-five years from that time all the affairs of our present state would be wound up…” William Miller’s Apology and Defense, 6, 12.


The rule of first mention establishes that the first thing mentioned is of the greatest importance, and the first thing mentioned in Revelation chapter one verse one is the communication process that the Father employs as He gives a message to Jesus, who in turn gives to His angel, which then gives it to a prophet that then writes it out and sends it to the churches. When Adventism rejected the work and discoveries of William Miller, they not only rejected their foundations, but they also rejected the very communication process which led Miller to in his understandings, and they rejected the process which is the only avenue for men to understand the Revelation of Jesus Christ that is opened up just before probation closes.

Miller was led to understand that the seven times of Leviticus commenced in 677BC. It was not until 1856 that the Lord used Hiram Edson to identify that the scattering of the seven times was also carried out against the northern ten tribes of Israel. The Lord was attempting to develop the understanding of the seven times in agreement with, but well beyond Miller’s foundational discovery of the seven times. But in 1856 the light presented by Hiram Edson came mysteriously to an end, for the sixth article in the series ended with the words of James White, then the Editor of the Review and Herald, “To be continued.” It was to be “continued” but not until post September 11, 2001 when the Lord led his people to the “old paths” and ultimately to the unfinished series of articles penned by Hiram Edson.

We are not currently addressing the rebellion that began shortly after the great disappointment, but to simply point out that even though Miller was led to the “seven times” of Leviticus twenty-six, it is clear that the Lord purposed to increase the initial understanding of the seven times beyond Miller’s foundational understanding of the subject. He chose Hiram Edson, the same servant from that very history that He had previously chosen to give the vision of Christ moving into the Most Holy Place on October 23, 1844.

This is why I used the Adventist theologian’s words to acknowledge that the framework for all of Miller’s prophetic applications was based upon his understanding of the two desolating powers that in the book of Daniel are represented as the “daily” (paganism), which is always associated with either the “transgression” or “abomination,” both representing different aspects of the desolating power of papalism. Miller’s foundational understanding of the Roman powers has greatly increased since the history he represents.

The angels of God, including Gabriel, led Miller to the understandings he proclaimed. Those understandings included the prophecies he proclaimed, the rules of biblical interpretation he used and also the framework that allowed him to organize the prophecies correctly. Miller was given the framework that the two desolating powers addressed in Daniel were pagan Rome and papal Rome. Future for America was led to the framework of the three desolating powers of the dragon, the beast and false prophet.

And I saw three unclean spirits like frogs come out of the mouth of the dragon, and out of the mouth of the beast, and out of the mouth of the false prophet. For they are the spirits of devils, working miracles, which go forth unto the kings of the earth and of the whole world, to gather them to the battle of that great day of God Almighty. Revelation 16:13, 14.


Future for America’s framework is built upon Miller’s work, but goes beyond where his work left off. Adventism left his framework and returned to the theology of apostate Protestantism and Rome. The same line of prophecy is taken up in the book of Revelation that is began in the book of Daniel.

“Revelation is a sealed book, but it is also an opened book. It records marvelous events that are to take place in the last days of this earth’s history. The teachings of this book are definite, not mystical and unintelligible. In it the same line of prophecy is taken up as in Daniel. Some prophecies God has repeated, thus showing that importance must be given to them. The Lord does not repeat things that are of no great consequence.” Manuscript Releases, volume 9, 8.


Miller could not grasp the prophecies of the book of Revelation, for the line of paganism and papalism that is so firmly identified in Daniel is expanded in the book of Revelation to include the next persecuting power to arrive on the stage of prophetic history.

“Through paganism, and then through the Papacy, Satan exerted his power for many centuries in an effort to blot from the earth God’s faithful witnesses. Pagans and papists were actuated by the same dragon spirit. They differed only in that the Papacy, making a pretense of serving God, was the more dangerous and cruel foe. Through the agency of Romanism, Satan took the world captive. The professed church of God was swept into the ranks of this delusion, and for more than a thousand years the people of God suffered under the dragon’s ire. And when the Papacy, robbed of its strength, was forced to desist from persecution, John beheld a new power coming up to echo the dragon’s voice, and carry forward the same cruel and blasphemous work. This power, the last that is to wage war against the church and the law of God, was symbolized by a beast with lamblike horns. The beasts preceding it had risen from the sea, but this came up out of the earth, representing the peaceful rise of the nation which is symbolized. The ‘two horns like a lamb’ well represent the character of the United States Government, as expressed in its two fundamental principles, Republicanism and Protestantism. These principles are the secret of our power and prosperity as a nation. Those who first found an asylum on the shores of America rejoiced that they had reached a country free from the arrogant claims of popery and the tyranny of kingly rule. They determined to establish a government upon the broad foundation of civil and religious liberty.

“But the stern tracing of the prophetic pencil reveals a change in this peaceful scene. The beast with lamblike horns speaks with the voice of a dragon, and ‘exerciseth all the power of the first beast before him.’ Prophecy declares that he will say to them that dwell on the earth that they should make an image to the beast, and that ‘he causeth all, both small and great, rich and poor, free and bond, to receive a mark in their right hand, or in their foreheads; and that no man might buy or sell, save he that had the mark, or the name of the beast, or the number of his name.’ Thus Protestantism follows in the steps of the Papacy.” Signs of the Times, November 1, 1899.


For Miller the sea beast and earth beast of Revelation thirteen represented pagan Rome followed by papal Rome. Miller also attempted to apply his framework to Revelation seventeen, but the healing of the deadly wound of the papacy, the prophetic role of the United States and the United Nations were outside the divine framework that had been given him by angels. For him the beast that came up out of the earth in Revelation thirteen was the papacy.

Miller was the messenger that was to be used to remove the mantle of Protestantism from the hands of the professed Protestants that had come out of the Dark Ages. The period when the United States would speak as a dragon, when Republicanism turned into a democracy and apostate Protestantism would combine with the apostate government and repeat the combination of church and state that is the image of the papacy was still future to his day. For that reason, he attempted to place the book of Revelation into the divine framework he had been given by angels.

He was chosen to understand the increase of knowledge that was produced in 1798 when the Ulai River vision of Daniel eight and nine was unsealed. Future for America was to understand the vision of the Hiddekel River of Daniel chapters ten through twelve that was unsealed in 1989, when, as described in Daniel eleven, verse forty, the countries representing the former Soviet Union were swept away by the papacy and the United States.

The framework that was given by angels to Future for America was based upon the identification of, and application of prophecy in the context of the three-fold union of the dragon, the beast and false prophet.

“The light that Daniel received from God was given especially for these last days. The visions he saw by the banks of the Ulai and the Hiddekel, the great rivers of Shinar, are now in process of fulfillment, and all the events foretold will soon come to pass.” Testimonies to Ministers, 112.


The Millerites presented the first and second angel’s message, announcing the opening of the judgment. Future for America is presenting the third angel’s message.

I have planted, Apollos watered; but God gave the increase. So then neither is he that planteth any thing, neither he that watereth; but God that giveth the increase. Now he that planteth and he that watereth are one: and every man shall receive his own reward according to his own labour. For we are labourers together with God: ye are God’s husbandry, ye are God’s building. According to the grace of God which is given unto me, as a wise masterbuilder, I have laid the foundation, and another buildeth thereon. But let every man take heed how he buildeth thereupon. For other foundation can no man lay than that is laid, which is Jesus Christ. 1 Corinthians 3:6–11.


To correctly present the third angel’s message you must also present the first two angels’ messages, for we are informed that there cannot be a third without a first and second. The first and second messages are the foundation and the third is the capstone, but the third message will never deny or contradict the first and second. If it does it is not the genuine message.

“The first and second messages were given in 1843 and 1844, and we are now under the proclamation of the third; but all three of the messages are still to be proclaimed. It is just as essential now as ever before that they shall be repeated to those who are seeking for the truth. By pen and voice we are to sound the proclamation, showing their order, and the application of the prophecies that bring us to the third angel’s message. There cannot be a third without the first and second. These messages we are to give to the world in publications, in discourses, showing in the line of prophetic history the things that have been and the things that will be.” Selected Messages, book 2, 104, 105.


There is a very nice observation of Millerite history and our history. The Millerites were the beginning and we are the end. They presented and lived the first and second angel’s messages. We present the third angel. Their unsealed message (the Ulai vision) is found in two chapters of Daniel, and ours (the Hiddekel vision) is found in three chapters. They identified the first and second woes, and lived within the fulfillment of the second woe. We identify and live within the fulfillment of the third woe. Their framework of prophetic application was pagan Rome (the dragon) and papal Rome (the beast). Our framework for prophetic application is modern Rome as a three-fold beast.

As we begin to consider the characteristic of papal Rome in chapter seventeen of Revelation being the eighth that is of the seven it is worthwhile to consider what the Millerites understood of Rome during the foundational history. The third angel will have additional light, but that light will never contradict established truth.

Daniel chapter two, seven, eight, eleven and twelve identify Rome, among other powers. We are considering Rome’s two phases prior to 1798; pagan and papal as the framework for Miller’s prophetic applications. Miller and the pioneers identify that “the robbers of thy people” in Daniel chapter eleven and verse fourteen represents Rome.

And in those times there shall many stand up against the king of the south: also the robbers of thy people shall exalt themselves to establish the vision; but they shall fall. Daniel 11:14.


There are at least two important points to consider within this verse. The word “vision” in the verse is one of two Hebrew words in the book of Daniel that are translated as “vision.” One of the Hebrew words translated as “vision” is châzôn, and means a dream, or a prophecy or a vision. The word châzôn identifies prophetic history, or a period of time, and it is found ten times in Daniel and always translated as “vision.”

The other Hebrew word that is also translated as “vision” is mar-eh’ and means appearance. The word mar-eh’ is identifying a singular sight, a point in time. The Hebrew word mar-eh’ is found thirteen times in Daniel and it is translated as “vision” six times, four times as “countenance,” twice as “appearance” and once as “well favored.”

The robbers of thy people represent Rome and it is therefore the prophetic subject of Rome that establishes the prophetic “vision” in the book of Daniel. For this reason, it is important to understand the significance of Rome as a prophetic symbol.

Prophetic logic demands that the word “vision” representing prophetic history is the same “vision” that is addressed in the book of Revelation, for inspiration identifies that Daniel and Revelation are the same book, that they complement each other, that they bring each other to perfection and that the same line of prophecy that is located in Daniel is taken up in the Revelation. Those points set forth in the Spirit of Prophecy have already been included in this series of articles, so I won’t include them again. I will add another point that we have also already included from Sister White. That point is that all the books of the Bible meet and end in the book of Revelation. The “vision” of prophetic history (châzôn) that is found in Daniel and is established with the prophetic subject of Rome, represents the vision of prophetic history throughout the Bible. All the books of the Bible meet and end in the Revelation and God never contradicts Himself. Never! If you think He has, you are misunderstanding something. The very same Hebrew word (châzôn) is also translated as vision in the book of Proverbs.

Where there is no vision, the people perish: but he that keepeth the law, happy is he. Proverbs 29:18.


That is the first point to consider about the verse. If we misunderstand Rome, then we cannot establish the vision of prophetic history. That fact essentially defines the efforts of Jesuits and others throughout history who have introduced counterfeit theology to destroy the prophetic subject of Rome. As we consider the foundational understanding of Rome, we should bear this in mind.

“Those who become confused in their understanding of the word, who fail to see the meaning of antichrist, will surely place themselves on the side of antichrist. There is no time now for us to assimilate with the world. Daniel is standing in his lot and in his place. The prophecies of Daniel and of John are to be understood. They interpret each other. They give to the world truths which everyone should understand. These prophecies are to be witness in the world. By their fulfillment in these last days, they will explain themselves.Kress Collection, 105.


If you fail to see the meaning of antichrist (Rome) you will join Rome, and this warning is placed within the context of being able to or not being able to understand the books of Daniel and Revelation. The Millerites built the foundational understanding of Adventism upon their identification of Rome. They understood that Rome was represented by two desolating powers, that both were phases of Rome, but they were not at a place in history to see Rome as a three-fold union as represented in the book of Revelation. Daniel is therefore the foundation represented by the Millerites and Revelation is the capstone represented by Future for America. There is another point from Daniel eleven verse fourteen which we wish to identify.

Miller and the pioneers understood that the image of Nebuchadnezzar’s dream represented the four kingdoms of Babylon, Medo-Persia, Greece and Rome. They could not see beyond the fourth kingdom, for they understood that papal Rome was simply a second phase of Rome and therefore that the fourth kingdom had ended in 1798. From their vantage point of history the only prophetic waymark left was the Second Coming of Christ, where the rock that was cut out of the mountain would strike the feet of the image. The Millerites recognized prophetic distinctions between pagan and papal Rome, but being forced to align 1798 up with Christ’s return they could see no further than four kingdoms.

“We have come to a time when God’s sacred work is represented by the feet of the image in which the iron was mixed with the miry clay. God has a people, a chosen people, whose discernment must be sanctified, who must not become unholy by laying upon the foundation wood, hay, and stubble. Every soul who is loyal to the commandments of God will see that the distinguishing feature of our faith is the seventh-day Sabbath. If the government would honor the Sabbath as God has commanded, it would stand in the strength of God and in defense of the faith once delivered to the saints. But statesmen will uphold the spurious sabbath, and will mingle their religious faith with the observance of this child of the papacy, placing it above the Sabbath which the Lord has sanctified and blessed, setting it apart for man to keep holy, as a sign between Him and His people to a thousand generations. The mingling of churchcraft and statecraft is represented by the iron and the clay. This union is weakening all the power of the churches. This investing the church with the power of the state will bring evil results. Men have almost passed the point of God’s forbearance. They have invested their strength in politics, and have united with the papacy. But the time will come when God will punish those who have made void His law, and their evil work will recoil upon themselves.” Seventh-day Adventist Bible Commentary, volume 4, 1168.


Revelation seventeen is the last identification of the kingdoms of Bible prophecy, and it identifies that seven kingdoms have fallen and that the eighth kingdom is the three-fold union of modern Rome. If the first reference to the kingdoms of Bible prophecy is Daniel chapter two, and it most certainly is; then the last reference should be illustrated by the first reference. How can the four kingdoms of Daniel chapter two agree with eight kingdoms in Revelation seventeen?

Remember therefore as we proceed, the Millerites could not see prophetic events beyond their history. The message they understood and proclaimed identified the Second Coming of Christ as the next waymark of prophetic history. But if the Millerite understanding of Rome as the symbol that establishes the vision of prophetic history and also Daniel chapter two are both Millerite foundational truths, how can this agree with the eight kingdoms of chapter seventeen of Revelation?

If you are uncertain if the image of Daniel two is foundational, all you need to do is consider the 1843 and 1850 pioneer charts. Both have the image of Daniel two portrayed upon them. Just as significantly is that Ellen White identifies that both charts were made by God’s direction and by His design.

“I have seen that the 1843 chart was directed by the hand of the Lord, and that it should not be altered; that the figures were as He wanted them; that His hand was over and hid a mistake in some of the figures, so that none could see it, until His hand was removed.” Early Writings, 74–75.


Of the 1850 chart she stated:

“I saw that God was in the publishment of the chart by Brother Nichols. I saw that there was a prophecy of this chart in the Bible, and if this chart is designed for God’s people, if it [is] sufficient for one it is for another, and if one needed a new chart painted on a larger scale, all need it just as much.” Manuscript Releases, volume 13, 359.


There is an ancient proverb from the world that states, “Error has many paths, but truth has only one.” There are several various errors that have been employed to prevent people from recognizing that modern Rome in Revelation seventeen is the eighth head that is of the seven. One of those errors which is employed by the theologians of Adventism is a misrepresentation of the kingdoms of history. I am not here referring to the kingdoms of Bible prophecy, these are two different designations. The kingdoms of Bible prophecy are established upon the first mention in Daniel chapter two, but there were kingdoms of history that preceded Babylon. Ellen White clearly identifies who the kingdoms of history were, but the theologians of Adventism ignore the inspired testimony and create a sequence of kingdoms of history that clouds the understanding that Rome always comes up eighth and is of the seven. Yet it is Rome that establishes the vision.

The theologians of Adventism and apostate Protestantism suggest that the kingdoms of history were Egypt, Assyria, Babylon, Medo-Persia, Greece, Rome and on. Sister White informs us that there is a third kingdom of history, which they choose to leave out. Are they leaving out that kingdom, or are they leaving out the Spirit of Prophecy? Both.

The history of nations that one after another have occupied their allotted time and place, unconsciously witnessing to the truth of which they themselves knew not the meaning, speaks to us. To every nation and to every individual of today God has assigned a place in His great plan. Today men and nations are being measured by the plummet in the hand of Him who makes no mistake. All are by their own choice deciding their destiny, and God is overruling all for the accomplishment of His purposes.

“The history which the great I AM has marked out in His word, uniting link after link in the prophetic chain, from eternity in the past to eternity in the future, tells us where we are today in the procession of the ages, and what may be expected in the time to come. All that prophecy has foretold as coming to pass, until the present time, has been traced on the pages of history, and we may be assured that all which is yet to come will be fulfilled in its order.

“The final overthrow of all earthly dominions is plainly foretold in the word of truth. In the prophecy uttered when sentence from God was pronounced upon the last king of Israel is given the message: ‘Thus saith the Lord God; Remove the diadem, and take off the crown: … exalt him that is low, and abase him that is high. I will overturn, overturn, overturn, it: and it shall be no more, until He come whose right it is; and I will give it Him.’ Ezekiel 21:26, 27.

The crown removed from Israel passed successively to the kingdoms of Babylon, Medo-Persia, Greece, and Rome. God says, ‘It shall be no more, until He come whose right it is; and I will give it Him.’

“That time is at hand. Today the signs of the times declare that we are standing on the threshold of great and solemn events. Everything in our world is in agitation. Before our eyes is fulfilling the Saviour’s prophecy of the events to precede His coming: ‘Ye shall hear of wars and rumors of wars…. Nation shall rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom: and there shall be famines, and pestilences, and earthquakes, in divers places.’ Matthew 24:6, 7.

“The present is a time of overwhelming interest to all living. Rulers and statesmen, men who occupy positions of trust and authority, thinking men and women of all classes, have their attention fixed upon the events taking place about us. They are watching the strained, restless relations that exist among the nations. They observe the intensity that is taking possession of every earthly element, and they recognize that something great and decisive is about to take place—that the world is on the verge of a stupendous crisis.

“Angels are now restraining the winds of strife, that they may not blow until the world shall be warned of its coming doom; but a storm is gathering, ready to burst upon the earth; and when God shall bid His angels loose the winds, there will be such a scene of strife as no pen can picture.

“The Bible, and the Bible only, gives a correct view of these things. Here are revealed the great final scenes in the history of our world, events that already are casting their shadows before, the sound of their approach causing the earth to tremble and men’s hearts to fail them for fear.” Education, 178–180.


This passage has much light for our time, but what I want to point out is that Sister White clearly identifies that the kingdom of history that preceded Babylon was Israel, not Assyria. The kingdoms of history that is used by theologians leave out Israel as a kingdom of history, in spite of the power and glory that was established during the reign of king Solomon, and in spite of inspiration’s direct testimony through Ezekiel and Ellen White that the crown of Israel passed to Babylon.

If we apply the inspired commentary to the kingdoms of history, we find that Israel needs to be counted among those kingdoms. Israel, Assyria and Egypt are kingdoms of history that preceded the first kingdom of Bible prophecy which was Babylon. Therefore, the fourth kingdom of “history” was Babylon, the fifth was Medo-Persia, the sixth was Greece, the seventh was pagan Rome, and the eighth was papal Rome, which was of the seven for it represents the second phase of pagan Rome. With the kingdoms of history papal Rome is the eighth, and is of the seven.

In Daniel seven we have the kingdoms of Bible prophecy represented by beasts. Babylon is the lion that was followed by the bear of Medo-Persia. The third was Greece as the leopard, and then Rome as the “dreadful and terrible” beast that had “iron teeth.” The terrible beast in agreement with the image of Daniel two is Rome, the fourth kingdom of Bible prophecy.

The Millerites understood the fourth kingdom to be Rome, so they understood the characteristics of the terrible beast as such, and simply applied all the prophetic characteristics of the beast unto the fourth kingdom. They saw the distinction between pagan Rome and papal Rome in the passage, but could not see a fifth kingdom of Bible prophecy, for they correctly used the first mention of the kingdoms of Bible prophecy as their point of reference. But the distinction between the two Rome’s is in the passage, which allows us to consider the distinction between the two Rome’s as representing two kingdoms. But this is not the point we are considering.

Thus he said, The fourth beast shall be the fourth kingdom upon earth, which shall be diverse from all kingdoms, and shall devour the whole earth, and shall tread it down, and break it in pieces.  And the ten horns out of this kingdom are ten kings that shall arise: and another shall rise after them; and he shall be diverse from the first, and he shall subdue three kings. And he shall speak great words against the most High, and shall wear out the saints of the most High, and think to change times and laws: and they shall be given into his hand until a time and times and the dividing of time. But the judgment shall sit, and they shall take away his dominion, to consume and to destroy it unto the end. Daniel 7:23–26.


The fourth kingdom in Daniel two is Rome. The ten horns represent the ten nations that represent the kingdom of pagan Rome, and before papal Rome would take control of the world in 538, three of those kingdoms would be removed, or plucked up. Then the “little” “horn” of verse eight with “eyes like the eyes of man, and a mouth speaking great things,” would arise. If we have ten horns in the fourth kingdom and three are removed in order for the “little horn” to replace those three horns, then when the three horns are removed it leaves seven horns, and the little horn is the eighth, for Rome always comes up eighth and is of the seven. There is much light concerning Rome in its two phases in this chapter, but we are simply here providing a second witness that prophetically as well as historically, Rome comes up eighth and is of the seven.

In chapter eight we find the enlargement of chapter seven. The chapter once again identifies the kingdoms of Bible prophecy but leaves off the first kingdom of Babylon for when Daniel received the vision of chapter eight it was very close to the end of Babylon. In the chapter Medo-Persia is represented by a ram that had two horns. Greece is represented by a goat with one horn that is broken and produces four horns out of the broken horn. Then a “little horn” follows after Greece, and once again the little horn is representing Rome. Though Rome was not a direct descendant from the empire of Greece, the passage portrays the little horn as coming out of one of the four horns that arose in the Greek kingdom after the first horn—representing Alexander the Great—was broken. Rome was not a descendant of the Greeks, but it began its conquering of the world from the area of Greece, and in that sense, it came out of one of those four horns.

We therefore find in chapter eight a second witness to chapter seven. Medo-Persia had two horns, Greece had one and thereafter four more horns. That equals seven horns before Rome’s as the little horn came out of one of Greece’s four horns. Two plus one plus four equals seven, then Rome, the little horn, is the eighth and it is of the seven. It is worth noting that in this passage that identifies that Rome comes out of one of the Greek horns is one of the greatest prophetic arguments that Miller and his co-laborers had to meet in their history.

The Protestants of that history insisted that the little horn of Rome could not be Rome, for the prophecy identifies that the little horn came out from one of the four Grecian horns. They therefore argued that the little horn represented Antiochus Epiphanes who was one of the Seleucid kings that carried on through history after the division of Alexander the Great’s demise. The argument of Millerite history over this issue was so great that on the 1843 chart the argument against the Protestant teaching that was based upon the fact that Daniel saw the little horn come out from one of the four Grecian horns and therefore could not identify Rome, for Rome did not descend from Greece. The argument impacted all the passages in Daniel where Rome is identified. The Protestant position included that the “robbers of thy people” in verse fourteen of Daniel eleven had to be Antiochus Epiphanes. The Millerites therefore included upon the chart that Sister White identified was “directed by the hand of the Lord and should not be altered,” a reference to Antiochus Epiphanes identifying why he could not have been that fourth kingdom. Does Rome establish the vision of prophetic history or did a Seleucid king that died over a hundred years before Christ was born represent the power that stood up against Christ at his crucifixion?

The question that could be raised is, why was Daniel shown Rome coming out of one of the Grecian horns, if Rome was not a direct descendant of Greece? The answer is that the beginning of Rome’s rise to power began in that region which had formerly been Greek territory, but why was the prophecy portrayed in such a way to allow for that confusion?

At least one answer, beyond the importance of noting where Rome began to rise, is that the enigma of Rome always coming up eighth and being of the seven is answered by Rome being associated with the territory of Greece, in order to retain the enigma’s point of Rome being of the seven. The enigma is that important, though the Millerites could never had understood that concept from their vantage point in history. The fact that all the references upon not only the 1843, but also the 1850 chart are illustrations of subjects that are directly addressed in God’s prophetic word, except for the one reference that emphasizes that Antiochus Epiphanes is not the power that stood against Christ, makes the addition to the chart very significant. How sad is it that when Adventism left their foundations, they find themselves today teaching that the power of verse fourteen of Daniel eleven is Antiochus Epiphanes and not Rome! They now teach what the Millerites opposed so strongly that they represented that controversy upon the 1843 chart!

The kingdoms of history identify that Rome comes up eighth and is of the seven. The “little horn” in chapter seven that speaks “great words against the Most High” comes up eighth and is of the seven. The horns of chapter eight identify that Rome comes up eighth and is of the seven.

In the next article we will consider how modern Rome, as represented in Revelation seventeen comes up eighth and is of the seven. We will then return to Daniel two and identify why Daniel two’s four kingdoms, which is the first mention of the kingdoms of Bible prophecy, is in agreement with Revelation seventeen’s eight kingdoms.

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1 comment on “The Eighth is of the Seven – Number One”

  1. Patrick Rampy

    It’s just stunning how Adventism has been so confused and turned around!

    “How sad is it that when Adventism left their foundations, they find themselves today teaching that the power of verse fourteen of Daniel eleven is Antiochus Epiphanes and not Rome! They now teach what the Millerites opposed so strongly that they represented that controversy upon the 1843 chart!”
    So sad! Where are the voices in Adventism to rectify this error?

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